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INTRODUCTION

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Epidemiology

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Epidemiology
Incidence
Colon cancer: 96,830 (male: 48,450; female: 48,380. Estimated new cases for 2014 in the United States)
Rectum cancer: 40,000 (male: 23,380; female: 16,620. Estimated new cases for 2014 in the United States) 52.2 per 100,000 male, 39.3 per 100,000 female for colon and rectum cancer
Deaths: Estimated 50,310 in 2014 for colon and rectum cancer (male: 26,270; female: 24,040)
Median age at diagnosis: 69 years
Male to female ratio: 1.7:1

Siegel R et al. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:9–29

Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, available from http://seer.cancer.gov (accessed in 2013)

Stage at presentation:
Stage I: 15%
Stage II: 20–30%
Stage III: 30–40%
Stage IV: 20–25%

Skibber JM et al. Cancer of the colon. In: Devita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, editors. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:1216–1270

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Five-Year Survival

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Five-Year Survival
  Colon Rectal
I >90% >90%
II 75-85% 70-85%
IIIA 59% 55%
IIIB 42% 35%
IIIC 27% 24%
IV <5% <5%

A large proportion of colorectal cancer patients are potential candidates for adjuvant therapies for stage II or III disease.

 

AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 6th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002:113–123

Greene FL et al. Ann Surg 2002;236:416–421

Greene FL et al. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;22:251 [abstract 1007]

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Work-up

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Work-up
In situ and Stage I H&P, carcinoembryonic antigen and (CEA), full colonoscopy, and pathology review
Stage II

H&P, CBC, serum electrolytes, LFTs, serum creatinine, BUN, and CEA. Full colonoscopy, CT scan of thorax and abdomen, and pelvis, pathology review

Rectal lesions: MRI. Determine whether there is a loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 18q and ascertain the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). Patient at high risk based on loss of heterozygosity at 18q and MSI status can be recommended for adjuvant treatment

Stage III As above for stages I–II. If patient has potentially resectable disease, additional studies may be needed before laparotomy to confirm resectability, including spiral CT scan, contrast MRI, PET scan, angiography, and laparoscopy
Stage IV As above plus KRAS status

de Gramont A et al. Gastrointest Cancer Res 2008,2: S2–S6

 

Skibber JM et al. Cancer of the colon. In: Devita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, editors. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:1216–1270

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Pathology

World Health Organization Classification

  1. Adenocarcinoma (>90%)

  2. Mucinous adenocarcinoma

  3. Adenosquamous carcinoma

  4. Small cell carcinoma

  5. Medullary carcinoma

  6. Signet ring adenocarcinoma

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma

  8. Undifferentiated

 

Skibber JM et al. Cancer of the colon. In: Devita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, editors. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:1216–1270

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Staging

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