Acanthocytes. Blood film. The image contains many spiculated cells that represent acanthocytes. Two are highlighted by the arrows. Characteristically, acanthocytes have irregularly arranged spicules that project from the red cell surface and are often bent back on themselves. Although superficially they resemble echinocytes, the latter have more numerous projections with rounded, rather than sharply pointed tips, evenly distributed over the red cell surface.
Agglutination. Blood film. Several clumps of agglutinated red cells, two are marked by arrows. These clumps may be seen if cold agglutinins have a thermal amplitude that permits them to be red cell agglutinins at the temperature of the preparation of the blood film or, occasionally with warm agglutinins, if they do not require addition of antiglobulins to agglutinate (complete agglutinins).
Avian Red Cells. Blood film. Typical nucleated red cells in blood. Mature red cells are oval with oval nuclei.
Echinocytes. The blood film contains several echinocytes, two marked by arrows. They have numerous surface regular protrusions with rounded ends, evenly distributed over the red cell surface.
Elliptocytes. The blood film contains numerous cigar shaped red cells, two of which are marked by arrows. The spectrum of elliptical cells range from an ovalocyte (American football shape) to the extremely elliptical cell (cigar shape). That range is evident in this field.
Hypochromic red cells. Blood film with severely hypochromic cells, two of which are marked by arrows. The cells are virtually all pathologically hypochromic, most containing only a narrow rim of cytoplasmic hemoglobin. The lymphocyte nucleus is often used as a rough expectation of the diameter of normal sized red cells. These appear smaller on average. Microcytosis is commonly paired with hypochromia as a dual manifestation of hypoferremic erythropoiesis seen in iron deficiency and the anemia of inflammation.
Keratocyte. Blood film. Synonyms include horn, helmet or bite cells. This red cell has lost a piece of peripheral cytoplasm, which leaves two horns on either side of the lost piece. Two examples are marked by arrows. It differs from a schizocyte by both its normal volume ...
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