The clinical features of acute pulmonary embolism include the following symptoms and signs that may overlap:
— Transient dyspnea and tachypnea in the absence of other clinical features.
— Pleuritic chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, pleural effusion, and pulmonary infiltrates noted on chest radiogram caused by pulmonary infarction or congestive atelectasis (also known as ischemic pneumonitis or incomplete infarction).
— Severe dyspnea and tachypnea and right-side heart failure.
— Cardiovascular collapse with hypotension, syncope, and coma (usually associated with massive pulmonary embolism).
— Several less common and nonspecific clinical presentations, including unexplained tachycardia or arrhythmia, resistant cardiac failure, wheezing, cough, fever, anxiety/apprehension, and confusion.