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DEFINITION AND HISTORY

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  • Patients with serologic evidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be diagnosed as having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) based on “AIDS-defining conditions” (Table 51–1).

  • Patients with HIV are living longer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  • The United Nations estimated that 35 million people worldwide were living with HIV infection in 2012, with the majority being infected by heterosexual contact.

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Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 51–1AIDS-DEFINING CONDITIONS
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ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1

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  • The primary cause of AIDS is infection with HIV-1.

  • HIV-1 is a member of the Lentivirinae subfamily of retroviruses.

    — Retroviruses are RNA viruses that induce a chronic cellular infection by converting their RNA genome into a DNA provirus that is integrated ...

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