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AAV: adeno-associated virus

AC: adenylyl cyclase

ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACh: acetylcholine

AChE: acetylcholinesterase

AKAP: A-kinase anchoring protein

AMPA: α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid

AngII: angiotensin II

ANP: atrial natriuretic peptide

Apaf-1: apoptotic activating protease factor 1

ASO: antisense oligonucleotide

ATG: autophagy gene

AT1R: AT1 receptor

BNP: brain natriuretic peptide

cAMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate

cAMP-GEF: cAMP-guanine exchange factor

cGMP: cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CNG: cyclic nucleotide–gated channel

CNP: C-type natriuretic peptide

CREB: cAMP response element–binding protein

CRISPR/Cas9: clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9

DA: dopamine

DAG: diacylglycerol

DMD: Duchenne muscular dystrophy

DRAM: damage-regulated autophagy modulator

4EBP: eukaryotic initiation factor 4e (eif-4E)–binding protein

EC50: half-maximally effective concentration

EGF: epidermal growth factor

eNOS: endothelial NOS (NOS3)

EPAC: exchange protein activated by cAMP

FADD: Fas-associated death domain

FGF: fibroblast growth factor

FKBP12: immunophilin target (binding protein) for tacrolimus (FK506)

FXR: farnesoid X receptor

GABA: γ-aminobutyric acid

GAP: GTPase-activating protein

GC: guanylyl cyclase

GEF: guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GI: gastrointestinal

GPCR: G protein–coupled receptor

GRK: GPCR kinase

HCN: hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide–gated channel

HRE: hormone response element

5HT: serotonin

IGF1R: insulinlike growth factor 1 receptor

IKK: IκB kinase

iNOS: inducible NOS (NOS2)

IP3: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IRAK: interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase

Jak: Janus kinase

JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase

KATP: ATP-dependent K+ channel

Ki: affinity of a competitive antagonist

LBD: ligand-binding domain

LDLR: low-density lipoprotein receptor

LXR: liver X receptor

MAO: monoamine oxidase

MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase

MHC: major histocompatibility complex

MLCK: myosin light chain kinase

mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin

MyD88: myeloid differentiation protein 88

NE: norepinephrine

NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa B

NGF: nerve growth factor

NGG: 5′-(any Nucleotide)-Guanosine-Guanosine-3′

NMDA: N-methyl-D-aspartate

nmDMD: nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy

nNOS: neuronal NOS (NOS1)

NO: nitric oxide

NOS: NO synthase

NPR-A: ANP receptor

NPR-B: natriuretic peptide B receptor

NPR-C: natriuretic peptide C receptor

NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

PDE: cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase

PAM: protospacer-adjacent motif

PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor

PDGF-R: PDGR receptor

PI3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PIP3: phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate

PK_: protein kinase _ (e.g., PKA)

PKB: protein kinase B (also known as Akt)

PLC: phospholipase C

PPAR: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

RGS: regulator of G protein signaling

RIP1: receptor interacting protein 1

RISC: RNA-induced silencing complex

RNAi: RNA interference

RXR: retinoic acid receptor


sGC: soluble guanylyl cyclase

sgRNA: single “guide” RNA

siRNA: small interfering RNA

S6K: S6 kinase

SMAC: second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase

SMC: smooth muscle cell

SR: sarcoplasmic reticulum

STAT: signal transducer and activator of transcription

TAK1: transforming growth factor β–activated kinase 1

TCR: T cell receptor

TGF-β: transforming growth factor β

TLR: Toll-like receptor

TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor α

TRADD: TNF receptor–associated death domain

TRAF: TNF receptor–associated factor

TRAIL: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TRP: transient receptor potential

VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor


Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical, cellular, and physiological effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action. ...

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