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[99m]TcMDP [99m]technetium-labelled methylene diphosphonate
5-ALA 5-aminolaevulinic acid
A2M α2-macroglobulin
ACT α1-antichymotrypsin
AFP α-fetoprotein
AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer
ARE androgen-responsive element
AUA American Urological Association
BHD Birt–Hogg–Dube syndrome
BOO bladder outlet obstruction
BOOI Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index
BPE benign prostatic enlargement
BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia
BPO benign prostatic obstruction
BTA bladder tumour antigen
BVE bladder voiding efficiency
cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate
CIS carcinoma in situ
CT computed tomography
DMSA dimercaptosuccinic acid
DRE digital rectal examination
DTPA diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid
EAU European Association of Urology
ED erectile dysfunction
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EDV end diastolic flow velocity volume
eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMB eosin-methylene blue
FDA Food and Drug Administration
GFR glomerular filtration rate
HAL hexyl aminolaevulinate
H&E haematoxylin and eosin
HIF-α hypoxia-inducible factor-α
hK2 human kallikrein 2
hK3 human kallikrein 3
HSP Henoch-Schönlein purpura
HU Hounsfield unit
ICC international correlation coefficient
ICS International Continence Society
IgA immunoglobulin A
IIEF International Index of Erectile Function
IPSS International Prostate Symptom Score
IR(ME)R ionizing radiation regulations
ISUP International Society of Urological Pathologists
IVC inferior vena cava
IVU intravenous urography
KFP formation product
KSP saturation product
KUB kidneys, ureters and bladder (radiograph)
LUTS lower urinary tract symptom
MAG3 mercaptoacetyltrigycine
MDRD Modification of Diet in Renal Disease
MRHA mannose-resistant haemoagglutination
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MSU midstream urine
MUCP maximum urethral closure pressure
MUP maximum urethral pressure
NGU non-gonococcal urethritis
NIH National Institutes of Health
NMP-22 nuclear matrix protein 22
NPV negative predictive value
NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
OAB overactive bladder syndrome
OIH orthoiodohippuran
PDE5 type 5 phosphodiesterase
PDGF-β platelet-derived growth factor-β
PET-CT positron emission tomography with CT
PIN prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
PMN Polymorphonuclear neutrophils
PPV positive predictive value
PSA prostate-specific antigen
PSMA prostate-specific membrane antigen
PSV peak systolic velocity
PUNLMP papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential
Qmax maximum flow rate
Qave average flow rate
RBC red blood cell
RCC renal cell carcinoma
REM rapid eye movement
RFA radiofrequency ablation
RI resistance index
SCr serum creatinine
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
SPA suprapubic aspirate
STD sexually transmitted disease
STIR short tau inversion recovery
TcMDP technetium-labelled methylene diphosphonate
TGF-α transforming growth factor-α
TGF-β transforming growth factor-β
TNM Tumour, Nodes, Metastasis
TRUSS transrectal ultrasound scanning
TURBT transurethral resection of a bladder tumour
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
UC urinary cytopathology
UICC International Union Against Cancer
UPP urethral pressure profilometry
UTI urinary tract infection
VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
VHL von Hippel-Lindau
VUDS videodynamics
VUR vesicoureteric reflux
VV voided volume
WBC white blood cell
WHO World Health Organization

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