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3D-CRT three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-HT3 5-hydroxytryptamine

AC Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide

ACC adrenal cortical carcinoma

ACIS automated cellular imaging system

ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADT androgen deprivation treatment

AFP α-fetoprotein

AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer

ALPI Adjuvant Lung Cancer Project Italy

ANC absolute neutrophil count

ANITA Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialists Association

ASC active supportive care

ASCO American Society of Clinical Oncology

ASTRO American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

AUC area under the curve

BEP bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin

BSO Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

CAB complete androgen blockade

CALGB Cancer and Leukaemia Group B

CBOP carboplatin, bleomycin, vincristine and cisplatin

CBR clinical benefit response

CEA carcinoembryonic antigen

CF cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil

CGA comprehensive geriatric assessment

CHOP cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunomycin [doxorubicin], Oncovin [vincristine], and prednisone

CHR carboplatin hypersensitivity reaction

CISCA cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin

CK cytokeratin

CMF cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil

CNS central nervous system

CSA cryosurgical ablation

CSF cerebrospinal fluid

CT computed tomography

CTZ chemoreceptor trigger zone

CVC central venous catheter

DMSO dimethylsulphoxide

DRE digital rectal examination

DTIC dacarbazine

EBRT external beam radiotherapy

ECF epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil

ECG electrocardiogram

ECOG PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score

ECX epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine

EDTA ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor

ELND elective lymph node dissection

EMA/CO etoposide, methotrexate, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine

EOF epirubicin, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil

EORTC European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

EOX epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine

EP/EMA etoposide, cisplatin, methotrexate and dactinomycin

ER oestrogen receptor

ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

FAC fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide

FAMTX 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and methotrexate

FE(50)C fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide

FIGO International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

FISH fluorescence in-situ hybridization

FNA fine needle aspiration

G-CSF granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

GFR glomerular filtration rate

GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumour

GITSG Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group

GM-CSFs granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factors

GP general practitioner

GTN gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

Hb haemoglobin

hCG human chorionic gonadotrophin

hCSF haemopoietic colony-stimulating factor

HD high dose intensity

HGG high-grade glioma

HIFU high frequency ultrasound

HR hazard ratio

IALT International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial

ICC interstitial cells of Cajal

IGCCC International Germ Cell Consensus Classification

IGCCCG International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group

IL interleukin

IMRT intensity-modulated radiation therapy

IV intravenous

LACE Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation

LDH lactate dehydrogenase

LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction

MASCC Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer

MEA methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin

MRC Medical Research Council

MRCP magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

MSCC metastatic spinal cord compression

MVAC methotrexate, vincristine, doxorubicin and cisplatin

MUGA multiple gated acquisition scan

NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network

NCIC National Cancer Institute of Canada

NHS National Health Service

NK-1 neurokinin-1

NPC nasopharyngeal carcinoma

NSABP National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project

NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer

NSE neurone-specific enolase

NSGCT non-seminomatous germ cell tumour

OGD oesophagogastroduodenoscopy

PCV procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine

PD progressive disease

PDGFR platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PET positron emission tomography

PFS progression-free survival

PR progesterone receptor

PSA prostate-specific antigen

PSTT placental site trophoblastic tumour

PTCA percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

RCC renal cell carcinoma

RECIST Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours

RFA radiofrequency ablation

rHuEPO recombinant human erythropoietin

RPLND retroperitoneal lymph node dissection

RR relative risk

RT radiotherapy

RTOG Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

SAGE serial analysis of gene expression

SLN sentinel lymph node

SMA smooth muscle actin

SNB sentinel node biopsy

SWOG Southwest Oncology Group

TAC docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide

TCC transitional cell carcinoma

TIA transient ischaemic attack

TIP paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin

TNF tumour necrosis factor

UFT uracil and tegafur

UKP unknown primary

VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor

VIP vinblastine, etoposide and cisplatin

WCC white cell count

WLE wide local excision

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