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The biggest challenges to offering acute cancer services in Australasia come from the widely dispersed populations in the two countries, a burgeoning demand for oncology care due to an increasing population (especially the elderly), and an increase in more effective but complex therapies. The population distribution of Australia and New Zealand is shown in Tables 9.1 and 9.2. Australia has 22.3 million people spread over 7.66 million km2 (approx. 3/km2); although 64% live in capital cities of each state, the remainder are widely spread, mainly near the coast. New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria have 57.3% of the Australian population, but just 13.4% of the land area, whilst Northern Territory has 1% of the population (of whom 30% are indigenous) on 17.5% of the land area.1-3 New Zealand has 4.2 million people, 46% in the eight largest cities, spread over 0.27 million km2 (approx. 15/km2), which is similar in area to Great Britain (where there are approx. 260 people per km2).4

Table 9.1*Australia population distribution, by state or territory
Table 9.2Population distribution in New Zealand (NZ), by cancer network region

The cancer incidence in 2008 was 112 304 (with 39 884 deaths) in Australia,9 and 20 317 (8566 deaths) in New Zealand.10 A simple assessment shows that cancer mortality was 35.5% and 42%, respectively. There were 168 linear particle accelerators ...

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