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ABC Activated B cell
ABL Abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homologue 1
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
AGO Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie [German Gynaecological Oncology Working Group]
Akt Protein kinase B
ALK Anaplastic lymphoma kinase
ALL Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
ASCT Autologous stem cell transplant
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
BCL B cell lymphoma protein
BCR Breakpoint cluster region
BEP Bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin
BiTE Bi-specific T cell engager
BRAF Serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf
BSO Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
BTK Bruton's tyrosine kinase
CA9 Carbonic anhydrase 9
CD Cluster of differentiation
CDF Cancer Drugs Fund
CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen
CK-7 Cytokeratin 7
CMI Caris Molecular Intelligence
CODOX-M Cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate
CPET Cardiopulmonary exercise test
CRAF RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase C-Raf
CRP C-reactive protein
CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
CSG Cancer susceptibility gene
ctDNA Circulating tumour DNA
CTLA-4 Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4
CXCL12 C-X-C motif chemokine 12
CYP Cytochrome P450
DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ
DEC Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative
DLBCL Diffuse large B cell lymphoma
DOG-1 Discovered on GIST-1
DRE Digital rectal examination
ECX Epirubicin, cisplatin, capecitabine
EFS Event-free survival
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor
ELF Enhanced Liver Fibrosis
EPOCH-R Rituximab, etoposide, prednisolone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin
ER Oestrogen receptor
ERK Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
EZH2 Enhancer of zeste homologue 2
FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose
FFPE Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded
FISH Fluorescence in situ hybridization
FOLFIRI Fluorouracil, folinic acid, irinotecan
FOLFOX Fluorouracil, folinic acid, oxaliplatin
5-FU Fluorouracil
GCB Germinal centre B cell
GERCOR Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie
GIST Gastrointestinal stromal tumour
GOJ Gastro-oesophageal junction
GWAS Genome-wide association study
hCG Human chorionic gonadotrophin
HER2 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2
HGBL High-grade B cell lymphoma
HGSOC High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma
HIF Hypoxia-inducible factor
HNPCC Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer
HPF High-powered field
HPV Human papillomavirus
IAP Immunosuppressive acidic protein
IGF-1R Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
IGFBP Insulin-like growth factor binding protein
IgG Immunoglobulin G
IPI International Prognostic Index
IRS Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group
ISH In situ hybridization
ISS International Staging System
IVA Ifosfamide, vincristine, dactinomycin
IVAC Ifosfamide, etoposide, cytarabine
IVD In vitro diagnostics
JAK2 Janus kinase 2
KIM-1 Kidney injury molecule-1
KRAS KRAS proto-oncogene
LDH Lactate dehydrogenase
LFS Li-Fraumeni syndrome
LS Lynch syndrome
MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase
MDT Multidisciplinary team
MEK Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
miRNA MicroRNA
MLH MutL protein homologue
MMP Matrix metalloproteinase
MMR Mismatch repair
mRCC Metastatic renal cell carcinoma
MRD Minimal residual disease
MSH MutS protein homologue
MSI Microsatellite instability
mTOR Mechanistic target of rapamycin
NAC Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
NACRT Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy
NCI National Cancer Institute
NFκB Nuclear factor kappa B
NGS Next generation sequencing
NIHR National Institute for Health Research
NLR Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing receptor
NMP Nuclear matrix protein
NOS Not otherwise specified
NRAS NRAS proto-oncogene
NSCLC Non-small-cell lung carcinoma
NSTGCT Non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumour
NT-proBNP N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide
OPSCC Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma
OS Overall survival
p53 Tumour protein p53
PARP Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase
pCR Pathological complete response
PCR Polymerase chain reaction
PD-1 Programmed cell death protein 1
PDGF Platelet-derived growth factor
PDGFR Platelet-derived growth factor receptor
PD-L1 Programmed death-ligand 1
PFS Progression-free survival
PI3K Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
PI3KCA Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
PKC Protein kinase C
PMBL Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma
PMS2 Postmeiotic segregation 1 homologue 2
POG Personalized Oncogenomics
PR Progesterone receptor
PS Performance status
PSA Prostate-specific antigen
PTEN Phosphatase and tensin homologue
QALY Quality-adjusted life year
QOL Quality of life
QTc Corrected QT interval
RAF Rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma
RAS Rat sarcoma
RCC Renal cell carcinoma
R-CHOP Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone
R-CODOX-M Cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate, cytarabine, rituximab
RCT Randomized controlled trial
RFS Recurrence-free survival
R-IPI Revised International Prognostic Index
R-IVAC Rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, cytarabine
RTK Receptor tyrosine kinase
SAA Serum amyloid A
SCC Squamous cell carcinoma
SHH Sonic hedgehog
SLAMF7 Signalling lymphocytic activation molecule F7
SNP Single nucleotide polymorphism
STAT3 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
SYK Spleen tyrosine kinase
TB Tuberculosis
TdT Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
TGCT Testicular germ cell tumour
TGF Transforming growth factor
TKI Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
TNF Tumour necrosis factor
TNT Triple-negative tumour
TTF-1 Thyroid transcription factor 1
VAF Variant allele frequency
VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor
VEGFR Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
VHL von Hippel-Lindau
VUS Variant of unknown significance
Wnt Wingless/Int-1

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