Cytogenetic abnormalities can be found in 50% to 80% of cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (see Williams Hematology, 10th ed, Chap. 11, Table 11–2).
— Translocations [eg, t(15;17); t(8;21)] and inversions of chromosomes (eg, inv16) can result in the expression of fusion genes that encode fusion proteins that are oncogenic.
— Overexpression or underexpression of genes that encode molecules critical to the control of cell growth, or programmed cell death, often within signal transduction pathways or involving transcription factors, occurs.
— Deletions of all or part of a chromosome (eg, –5, 5q–, –7, or –7q) or duplication of all or part of a chromosome may be evident (eg, trisomy 8).
— Specific cytogenetic abnormalities and gene mutations and their correlates, if any, with specific myeloid neoplasms are described in Chaps. 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48.