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ABVD: adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine

ADA: adenosine deaminase

ALL: acute lymphoblastic leukemia

AML: acute myeloid leukemia; acute myelocytic leukemia

APL: acute promyelocytic leukemia

Ara-C: cytarabine, cytosine arabinoside

Ara-U: ara-uridine

L-ASP: L-asparaginase

ATO: arsenic trioxide

ATRA: all-trans retinoic acid

AUC: area under the curve

BCNU: carmustine [1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea]

BCRP: breast cancer resistance protein

CCNU: 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (lomustine)

CDK: cyclin-dependent kinase

CHOP: cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (H), vincristine (O), and prednisone

CLCr: creatinine clearance

CLL: chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CML: chronic myelocytic leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia

CSF: cerebrospinal fluid

CTCL: cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

dCK: deoxycytidine kinase

dFdC: 2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine, gemcitabine

5′-dFdU: 5′-deoxyfluorodeoxyuridine

DHFR: dihydrofolate reductase

DPD: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase

FdUMP: fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate

FOLFIRINOX: FOLFOX plus irinotecan

FOLFOX: folinic acid, 5FU and oxaliplatin

5FU: 5-fluorouracil

FUdR: fluorodeoxyuridine or floxuridine or 5-FUdR

GART: glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase

G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

HbF: hemoglobin (fetal)

HDM-L: high-dose MTX with leucovorin rescue

HGPRT: hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase

HMG: high-mobility group

HRD: homologous recombination DNA repair

HU: hydroxyurea

IMP: inosine monophosphate

MESNA: 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate-Na+

MGMT: O6-alkyl, methyl guanine methyltransferase

MMR: mismatch repair

MOPP: nitrogen mustard, oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine, and prednisone

6MP: 6-mercaptopurine

MRP: multidrug resistance-associated protein

MTIC: methyl-triazeno-imidazole-carboxamide

MTX: methotrexate

Nab-paclitaxel: albumin-bound nanoparticle solution of paclitaxel

NER: nucleotide excision repair

PG: polyglutamate

Pgp: P-glycoprotein

PML: promyelocytic leukemia

PRPP: 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate

RAR: retinoic acid receptor

RNR: ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase

ROS: reactive oxygen species

TEM: triethylenemelamine

TEPA: triethylenephosphoramide

6TG: 6-thioguanine

Thiotepa: triethylenethiophosphoramide

TPMT: thiopurine methyltransferase

TS: thymidylate synthase

TTP: thymidine triphosphate

VOD: veno-occlusive disease

A Note on Treatment Regimens

Cancer treatment regimens change to reflect continuous advances in basic and clinical science: new drugs, both small molecules and biologicals; improved methods of targeting and timing of drug delivery; agents with altered pharmacokinetic properties and selectivities; the use of rational multidrug combinations; and greater knowledge of the basic cell biology of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and immune function, among other advances. As a consequence, this chapter presents relatively few detailed treatment regimens; rather, we refer the reader to the web-based resources of the U.S. FDA and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network ( Table 71–1 provides two examples of therapeutic regimens that illustrate the complexity of current cancer drug therapy.



The discovery and initial development of alkylating anticancer drugs are based on observations of the effects of chemical warfare in World War I (Chabner and Roberts, 2005). The pervasively toxic sulfur mustard gas that caused topical burns to skin, eyes, lungs, and mucosa also caused aplasia of the bone marrow and lymphoid tissue and ulceration of the GI tract (Krumbhaar, 1919). In 1942, Louis Goodman and Alfred Gilman, the originators of this text, demonstrated the ...

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